One of the common mistakes in Quran Tajweed is not getting heavy and light letters in the right way.
In this article, we discuss one of the rules of Tajweed which is Heavy And Light Letters or Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. Tajweed is a set of rules put in by Muslim scholars to help Muslims recite the Quran as was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from Allah (SWT). This article will discuss Tajweed rules related to Tafkheem/heavy letters and Tarqeeq/light letters in brief.
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Tafkheem and Tarqeeq are a set of rules related to the proper pronunciation of Arabic letters in the Quran. The majority of letters are Muraqaq (Light) while the minority are Mufakham (Heavy). There are also letters that could be either Mufakham (Heavy) or Muraqaq (light) according to the position and Haraka of the letter.
What Is Tafkheem? التفخيم
The definition of tafkheem: Fattening
Its applied definition: It is a heaviness that enters the body of the letter, so that the mouth is filled with its reverberation (echo).
The letters of Tafkheem or the heavy letters are called the letters of Isti’laa (the letters that rise up high). This means that while pronouncing these letters, the tongue is elevated creating a space between the bottom and the roof (soft palate) of the mouth. This allows the reverberation and the heaviness to occur.
What Are The Heavy/Tafkheem Letters in Quran?
Tafkeem letters are the minority of letters. They are only seven letters of the Arabic Alphabet, pronounced Heavy In the following table, we will list these letters in descending order according to their level of Tafkheem along with examples from the Quran.
Isti’laa /Tafkheem/ Heavy letter Example from Number of Surah And Verses (Follow Links to Hear Pronunciation) with examples
Isti’laa /Tafkheem/ Heavy letter
1. Taa – (ط)
2. Daad – (ض)
3. Saad – (ص)
4. Dhaa – (ظ)
5. Qaaf – (ق)
6. Ghayn – (غ)
7. Khaa – (خ)
What Are The Levels Of Tafkheem/Thickness?
The levels of Tafkheem vary among different Tajweed schools. There is more than one school of levels of Tafkheem where one states they are three levels while the other suggests they are five.
Here we will mention the school of five levels. These levels are listed in descending order as follows:
1-The strongest being the tafkheem letter that has a ha-fat (ظَلَم) And if it is Sakin and the letter before it has a fat-ha (يَغْلب).
2-the second being the tafkheem letter with a ـ ) dammah (قُولوا) And if it is Sakin and the letter before it has a dammah (يُصرف).
3-the third level, the tafkheem letter with a kasrah ( طِبتم) And if it is Sakin and the letter before it has a kasrah (أِطعام )
The Five Levels of Tafkheem when you read:
1-The highest level is a tafkheem letter followed by a long alif (خَالدين).
2-The second level is a tafkheem letter with a fathah on it (قَتل).
3-The third level is that of a tafkheem letter having a dammah (غُلبت).
4-The fourth level is a tafkheem letter with a sukoon (يُقتل).
5-the fifth and last level is that of a tafkheem letter with a (طِباقا).
We recommend you listen to the Arabic pronunciation of Tafkeem letters in different levels of Tafkheem on YouTube. Also, we would recommend you join Tajweed Courses at Iqra Warattel for professional and practical Tajweed learning.
What Is Tarqeeq/light? الترقيق lightness
Definition of Tarqeeq:
Linguistic Definition: Tarqeeq literally means to make something thin.
Applied Definition in Tajweed: Technically, it is the thinness (flatness) found in the mouth while pronouncing some letters.
Letters that always have Tarqeeq (light letters) This group consists of the rest of the Arabic alphabet.
Tarqeeq is the thinning in the body of the Muraqqaq/ light letter, where the mouth is not filled with echo or reverberation.
The Light letters are called the letters of ‘Istifal’, which means ‘falling down’. That’s totally the opposite of Istila’ letters previously mentioned in Tafkheem. Where these Istifal letters let the tongue rest down at the bottom of the mouth with no echo observed.
What Are Tarqeeq/ Light Letters?- With Examples
Letters of Tarqeeq are the majority of the Arabic Alphabet. It is easier to consider that they are all the letters except the letters of Tafkheem, There are 7 huroof (ط – ض- ص – ظ – غ – خ), and the letters that could be either light or heavy (ر- ل – ا).
In the following table, we will list a few examples of Tarqeeq letters:
Example (1) From The Quran
Example (2) From The Quran
1. Taa – (ت)
2. Seen – (س)
3. Meem – (م)
What Are The Letters That Could be Heavy or light?
There are a few letters that have the properties of both Tafkheem and Tarqeeq. This depends on several factors; namely the Haraka of this letter and the letters before or after.
These letters are (Raa ر – Laam ل – Alif Maddiyya ا ) and also the Ghunna.
Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Of Letter Ra/Types of Raa
Letter Raa would be heavy if any of these conditions occur:
If the Raa has a fatha.
If the Raa has a dhamma.
If the Raa with a permanent sukoon and follows a letter with a fatha or a damma in the same word.
If the Raa carries a permanent sukoon, and it follows a permanent kasra in the same word, BUT it precedes a heavy letter.
If the Raa carries a permanent sukoon, however, the preceding kasra lies in the previous word.
If the Raa carries a permanent sukoon but follows a temporary kasra.
If the Raa carries a temporary sukoon, but it follows a fatha or a damma, or an alif, or wow madiyyah.
If the Raa carries a sukoon and is preceded by another letter with a sukoon, we will look at the letter before them both. If that letter carries a fatha or damma, the Raa would be heavy.
Letter Raa would be light If any of these conditions are met:
If Raa carries a kasra.
If Raa carries a permanent sukoon and follows a kasra in the same word, AND no heavy letter comes after it in the same word.
If Raa carries a temporary sukoon and follows a kasra in the same word or Ya Sakinah.
If Raa carries a sukoon and follows another letter with a sukoon, we will look at the letter before that. If that letter has a kasra, the Raa will be light.
If Raa carries a shaddah / It will be according to the movement that is with it
In the following chart, there is a brief summary of Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of letter Raa with some exceptions of the rule:
The Ghunna is not a typical letter of the Arabic Alphabet. However, it is a sound that comes out of the nose and accompanies some letters in certain Tajweed rules.
The Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Ghunna depend on the letter that follows it. If the letter following it is heavy, it would be heavy, and vice versa.
Ghunna Rule: Light/Heavy
فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ (Quran 99:7)
مِن قَبْلُ هُدًۭى لِّلنَّاسِ (Quran 3:4)
Closing | A Summarized Tafkheem And Tarqeeq Chart
Tafkheem and Tarqeeq are among the most important Tajweed rules. They are related to the qualities of the letters either Isti’la’ or Istifal.
The majority of letters are light, while the minority are heavy. Besides, there are some letters that bear the qualities of both Tafkheem and Tarqeeq according to their context.
In this article, we discussed the rules of Tafkheem and Tarqeeq in brief along with several examples. If you want to learn more about Tajweed, join our Online Mastering Tajweed Course at Iqra warattel.
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